International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Education
Abbreviation: IJIAPE | ISSN (Print): 2602-4780 | ISSN (Online): 2602-4489 | DOI: 10.29329/ijiape

Original article    |    Open Access
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Education 2024, Vol. 8(1) 51-69

Student Experiences on the Use of Artificial Intelligence-Based Chatbots in Programming Education

Ayfer Alper & Ayşe Tekin

pp. 51 - 69   |  DOI:

Published online: March 31, 2024  |   Number of Views: 15  |  Number of Download: 31


The aim of the study is to examine student opinions about the artificial intelligence-based chatbot developed to support programming learning. For this purpose, a case study from qualitative research methods was used. The study group consisted of 42 6th grade students attending a public school in Keçiören district of Ankara province. In order to obtain opinions on the use of the chatbot, a form consisting of open-ended questions was developed by the researcher and sent to the participants via Google Forms, and the opinions of the participants were obtained with the questions in the form. Descriptive analysis technique was used to analyze the qualitative data obtained.

While analyzing the students' answers, the frequency of occurrence of codes and their relationship with each other were examined. Repetitive expressions were grouped under appropriate codes, and necessary interpretations were made according to the intensity of these groupings. When the students were asked how they did their activities, it was seen that most of them did it by asking the chatbot, reached the desired result, did not have much difficulty, the chatbot facilitated their work, directed their questions whenever they needed, understood the answers given, and that the students thought it was effective for them to learn by asking questions and discovering themselves with the answers given to the questions. In addition to positive opinions about the environment such as "excellent, beautiful, good, enjoyable, fun, useful, interesting, conveys information to us accurately, we learn what we do not know without needing anyone, it is a very good explanatory and really useful environment, we learn things we cannot do from there, it is useful, facilitating, very useful for those who want to learn coding", negative features such as "it responds according to the old version of the coding environment and it is difficult to understand some answers" were also mentioned, although very few in number.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Chatbots, Programming Education

How to Cite this Article

APA 6th edition
Alper, A. & Tekin, A. (2024). Student Experiences on the Use of Artificial Intelligence-Based Chatbots in Programming Education . International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Education, 8(1), 51-69. doi: 10.29329/ijiape.2024.662.4

Alper, A. and Tekin, A. (2024). Student Experiences on the Use of Artificial Intelligence-Based Chatbots in Programming Education . International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Education, 8(1), pp. 51-69.

Chicago 16th edition
Alper, Ayfer and Ayse Tekin (2024). "Student Experiences on the Use of Artificial Intelligence-Based Chatbots in Programming Education ". International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Education 8 (1):51-69. doi:10.29329/ijiape.2024.662.4.

  1. Akpınar, Y. and Altun, A. (2014). The Need for Programming Education in Information Society Schools. Elementary Education Online, 13(1), 1-4. [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D. R. (eds.) 2001. A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman. [Google Scholar]
  3. Aşkar, P. & Davenport, D. (2009). An investigation of factors related to self-efficacy for java programming among engineering students. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 8(1), 26-32. [Google Scholar]
  4. Bers, M. U. (2018). Coding as a literacy for the 21st century. Retrieved from he_21st_century.html. [Google Scholar]
  5. Clarizia, F., Colace, F., Lombardi, M., Pascale, F., & Santaniello, D. (2018). Chatbot: An education support system for student. International symposium on cyberspace safety and security. Springer. [Google Scholar]
  6. Chen, H., Widarso, G., & Sutrisno, H. (2020). A chatbot for learning chinese: learning achievement and technology acceptance. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 58(6), 1161-1189. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  7. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education (6th ed.).London and New York, NY: Routledge Falmer. [Google Scholar]
  8. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). USA: SAGE Publications. [Google Scholar]
  9. Çakıroğlu, Ü., Sarı, E., & Akkan, Y. (2011, September). Teachers' Opinions on the Contribution of Programming Teaching to Gifted Students to Problem Solving. In Genç Z. (Ed.), 5th International Computer & Instructional Technologies Symposium (pp. 1096-1102). Fırat University. [Google Scholar]
  10. Daradoumis, T., Puig, J. M, M., Arguedas, M. & Liñan, L. C. (2019). Analyzing students' perceptions to improve the design of an automated assessment tool in online distributed programming. Computers & Education (128), pp. 159-170. [Google Scholar]
  11. Essel, H., Vlachopoulos, D., Tachie-Menson, A., Johnson, E., & Baah, P. (2022). The impact of a virtual teaching assistant (chatbot) on students' learning in ghanaian higher education. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 19(1). [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  12. European Commission. (2018). Coding - the 21st century skill. Retrieved from [Google Scholar]
  13. Fernoagă, V.P., Stelea, G. A., & Gavrila, C. (2017). Intelligent Education Assistant Powered by Chatbots. in The International Scientific Conference eLearning and Software for Education.  2018.   "Carol   I"           National             Defense University.   Retrieved from Powered_by_Chatbots. [Google Scholar]
  14. Flyvbjerg, B. (2011). Case study. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (4 ed., pp. 301-316). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. [Google Scholar]
  15. Følstad, A., & Taylor, C. 2020. "Conversational repair in chatbots for customer service: the effect of expressing uncertainty and suggesting alternatives," in Chatbot Research and Design (CONVERSATIONS 2019), A. Følstad, T. Araujo, S. Papadopoulos, E. L.-C. Law, O.-C. Granmo, E. Luger & P. B. Brandtzaeg (eds.), Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 201-214. [Google Scholar]
  16. Gall, M., Borg, W. & Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research an introduction (6th ed.). USA: Longman Publisher. [Google Scholar]
  17. Goel, A., & Polepeddi, L. (2018). Jill Watson. In Dede, C., Richards, J, & Saxberg, B (Eds.) Learning Engineering for Online Education: Theoretical Contexts and Design-Based Examples. Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  18. Goel, A.K., & Polepeddi, L., 2018. Jill Watson: a virtual teaching assistant for online education. In Learn. Eng. Online Educ. 120-143. Routledge. [Google Scholar]
  19. Hien, H. T., Cuong, P.-N., Le Nam, N. H., Nhung, Ho Le Thi Kim, & Le Thang, D. 2018. "Intelligent assistants in higher-education environments: the fıt-ebot, a chatbot for administrative and learning support," in Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Information and Communication Technology, New York: ACM, pp. 69- 76. [Google Scholar]
  20. Hobert, S. (2019). Say hello to 'Coding Tutor'! Design and evaluation of a chatbot-based learning system supporting students to learn to program. International Conference on Information Systems   (ICIS)   2019 Conference.            AIS. Retrieved   from'Coding_Tutor'_De sign_and_Evaluation_of_a_Chatbotbased_Learning_System_Supporting_Students_to_Learn_to_Program. [Google Scholar]
  21. Hobert, S., Følstad, A., & Law, E. L. (2023). Chatbots for active learning: A case of phishing email identification. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 179, Article 103108. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  22. İşeri, İ., Aydın, Ö. and Tutuk, K. (2021). Artificial Intelligence Based Chatbot Development in Customer Service Management. European Journal of Science and Technology, (29), 358- 365. [Google Scholar]
  23. Kandemir, E.M. (2011). Öğretmenlerin Üsteyey Bilimsel Süreç Becerilerinin Anlama Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi (Master's Thesis, Ege University). Retrieved from [Google Scholar]
  24. Kumar, J. (2021). Educational chatbots for project-based learning: investigating learning outcomes for a team-based design course. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 18(1). [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  25. Kylonen, P. C. (2012). Measurement of 21st century skills within the common core state standards. Paper presented at the Invitational Research Symposium on Technology Enhanced Assessments, May 7-8. [Google Scholar]
  26. Leavitt, C., Corbin, M., Keith, M., Schuetzler, R., Anderson, G., & Kettles, D. (2022). A chatbot tutor can lessen the gender confidence gap in information systems learning. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  27. Meyer von Wolff, R.; Heuzeroth, T.; Hobert, S. & Schumann, M. (2020). The students' view on it-support chatbots at universities - A case-based pilot study. Proceedings Of The 26th Americas   Conference        On         Information        Systems (AMCIS). Salt Lake City, Utah. [Google Scholar]
  28. Mikic, F. A., Burguillo, J. C., Llamas, M., Rodriguez, D. A., & Rodriguez, E. 2009. "CHARLIE: An AIML-based chatterbot which works as an interface among INES and humans," in 2009 EAEEIE Annual Conference. 2009, pp. 1-6. [Google Scholar]
  29. Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. (2nd Edition). Calif. : SAGE Publications. [Google Scholar]
  30. Miles, B., Huberman, M. (2015). An Expanded Sourcebook: Qualitative Data Analysis (Trans.Ed: Sadegül Akbaba Altun - Ali Ersoy). Ankara: Pegem Akademi. [Google Scholar]
  31. Molnár, G. & Szűts, Z. (2018). The role of chatbots in formal education. International Symposium on Intelligent Systems and Informatics, Subotica, Serbia. [Google Scholar]
  32. Monroy-Hernandez, A. & Resnick, M. (2008). Empowering kids to create and share programmable media. ACM Digital Library, 15(2), 50-53. [Google Scholar]
  33. Müller, S., Bergande, B., & Brune, P. 2018. "Robot Tutoring," in Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference Software Engineering Education, J. Mottok (ed.), New York: ACM, pp. 45-49. [Google Scholar]
  34. Park, I., Kim, D., Oh, J., Jang, Y. & Lim, K. (2015). Learning effects of pedagogical robots with programming in elementary school environments in Korea. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8(26), 7-11. [Google Scholar]
  35. Partnership for 21st Century Learning (P21). (2007). Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved from [Google Scholar]
  36. Passier, H. 2017. "The role of procedural guidance in software engineering education," in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Art, Science, and Engineering of Programming - Programming '17, J. B. Sartor, T. D'Hondt and W. de Meuter (eds.), New York: ACM Press, pp. 1-2. [Google Scholar]
  37. Resnick, M. (2013). Learn to code - code to learn. Retrieved on 17.12.2022 from [Google Scholar]
  38. Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of innovation. New York: Free Press [Google Scholar]
  39. Sandu, N. & Gide, E. (2019). Adoption of ai-chatbots to enhance student learning experience in higher education in India. In 2019 18th conference on information technology based higher education and training (ITHET), pp. 1-5. DOI: 10.1109/ITHET46829.2019.8937382. [Google Scholar]
  40. Sayın, Z. & Seferoğlu, S. S. (2016). Coding Education and the Impact of Coding on Education Policies. XVIII. Academic Informatics Conference (AB16), February 3-5, 2016, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın. [Google Scholar]
  41. Shin, S., Park, P. & Bae, Y. (2013).The effects of an information-technology gifted program on friendship using scratch programming language and clutter. International Journal of Computer and Communication Engineering, 2(3), 246-249. [Google Scholar]
  42. Souali, K., Rahmaoui, O., Ouzzif, M. & El Haddioui, I. (2019). Recommending moodle resources using chatbots. 15th International Conference on Signal-Image Technology & Internet-Based Systems (SITIS), Sorrento, Italy, 2019, pp. 677-680, doi: 10.1109/SITIS.2019.00110. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  43. Sriwisathiyakun, K. and Dhamanitayakul, C. (2022). Enhancing digital literacy with an intelligent conversational agent for senior citizens in thailand. Education and Information Technologies, 27(5), 6251-6271. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  44. Thomas, H. (2020). Critical literature review on chatbots in education. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD), 4(6), 786-788. [Google Scholar]
  45. Thuné, M. and Eckerdal, A. (2018). Analysis of students’ learning of computer programming in a computer laboratory context. European Journal of Engineering Education, 44(5), 769-786. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  46. Uzun, Y., Tümtürk, A. Y., & Öztürk, H. (2021). Artificial Intelligence Used in Education Today and in the Future. 1st International Conference On Applied Engineering And Natural Sciences. Konya, Ankara. [Google Scholar]
  47. Winkler, R., & Söllner, M. 2018. "Unleashing the potential of chatbots in education: A state- of-the-art analysis," in Academy of Management Annual Meeting (AOM), Chicago, USA. [Google Scholar]
  48. Wynd, C. A., Schmidt, B., & Schaefer, M. A. (2003). Two quantitative approaches for estimating content validity. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25(5), 508-518. [Google Scholar]
  49. Yağcı, M. (2017). A web-based blended learning environment for programming languages: students’ opinions. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5(3), 211. [Google Scholar] [Crossref] 
  50. Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2003). Qualitative Research Methods in Social Sciences. Ankara: Seçkin Publications. [Google Scholar]
  51. Yıldırım, A. and Şimşek, H. (2008). Qualitative research methods in social sciences. Ankara: Seçkin Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  52. Yılmaz, G. K. (2014). Case Study, (Ed., Metin, M.), Scientific Research Methods in Education from Theory to Practice, ISBN 978-605-364-687-7, Pegem Akademi. [Google Scholar]
  53. Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (4 ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sagre. [Google Scholar]
  54. Yin, J., Goh, T.T., Yang, B., & Xiaobin, Y. (2021). Conversation technology with micro- learning: the impact of chatbot-based learning on students' learning motivation and performance. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 59 (1), 154-177. [Google Scholar]